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OUR STORY BEGINNING

【生態】人類與動物-第9篇:古老的運輸
【Ecology】Humans and Animals - Chapter 9: An ancient transportation

 

古老交通工具是騎馬或驢,隨著世代變遷,漸漸被現代交通工具取代。

 

Ancient transportation is horse or donkey riding, and gradually it is replaced by modern ones with the era changing.

 


 

 

【小故事01】騎馬體驗:與馬對話

 

 

  不論是騎馬、騎驢或任何動物,動物們其實都很有個性,脾氣大不相同,其實牠們可以感受到人類的情緒與友善。

 

  有一次在法國南部牧場,騎馬前我們習慣會輕柔摸著牠的鬃毛,溫和地對馬匹說話,在心靈上抱持友善的態度,雖然馬聽不懂中文,我們也不會講法文,其實馬會感受到我們的友善。

 

 

 

【The Little story 01】Riding horse experience: Communication with horses

 

 

Animals have their characters whether riding horses, donkeys, or any animals. In fact, they can feel human emotions and friendly.


Once before riding a horse, we used to gently touch its mane and mildly talk to a horse at the pasture in southern France. Had a friendly attitude in the spirit that horses could feel our friendly although they did not understand Chinese, and we could not speak French either. In fact, horses could feel our friendly.

 

 

 

  在馬群中,其中有匹高大的白色駿馬,總是想走到最前面,隨後牠就會被牧場主人喝止。在馬的世界裡,馬王主導其它馬匹,並且會走在最前面;牧場主人為了管理馬群,會選一匹適當的馬當馬王,藉由馬王領導馬群。一問之下,為什麼這匹白馬總是想搶著跑第一個?原來他不服氣,以為自己是馬王,所以才會每次被馬場主人制止。

 

  這時候突然間,有人帽子掉在先前經過的草原溼地上。牧場主人說,他需要獨自步行回去撿帽子(因為牧場主人如果騎馬回去的話,整個馬群就必須跟著走回去),說完就將這兩匹駿馬都交給我,交代只要緊握好韁繩,靜靜不動就可以了。

 

 

There was a fine, white steed in a team of horses that it always wanted to walk in the front, and the pasture's owner shouted to stop it later. The king of horses leads other horses in front of them in the horses' world. The owner of the pasture will choose an appropriate horse to be the one who manages the team of horses. The owner of the pasture will choose an appropriate horse to be the king that could manage and lead the team of horses. Asking the owner why this white horse always wanted to be the first one? It turned out that the white horse was not convinced and thought was the king of horses by itself. Therefore, it was stopped by the owner every time.


Someone had dropped the hat on the way of the wetlands that they passed by. The owner said he must walk back to pick it up by himself. (Because the whole team of horses would follow back if the owner rides the horse to go back.) After his words, he handed over these two steeds to me and explained to hold the reins only without any movement.

 

 

  心想,這下該怎麼辦?萬一馬發脾氣了往前衝,那不就要跟著馬往前衝……心裡不斷跟馬說話,請牠乖乖地等待牧場主人回來。兩匹馬與我四目相望,突然間,這匹白馬溫和地嗅一嗅袖子,整個袖子都是牠的鼻涕與口水,牠好像在表示友好。在牧場主人回來之前,這兩匹馬乖乖地在原地等候,突然感覺到原來跟馬之間也可以有彼此的信任。

 

【行程】

 

尋找故事深度之旅

 

 

I thought about what I should do now. Did I rush with these horses if they had loosed their temper to rush forward? I was talking to the horses in the heart that hoped they could wait obediently for the owner to come back. The two horses and I looked at each other, and the white one suddenly mildly sniffed my sleeve. It seemed like a gesture of goodwill; however, the whole sleeve was all its snot and drool. These two were waiting obediently in situ before the owner back. I felt that I could trust each other with the horse at that moment.


【TOUR】


 [Seek stories depth tour.

 

 

 

【小故事02】騎馬體驗:從馬背上掉下來的瞬間

 

  有一次在藏區的騎馬體驗中,我們騎著馬匹沿著河流邊漫步,藏民解說著這個區域與這條河流的生態(這條河流有河葬)。在他們的信仰中,河葬是神聖的,魚也是神,所以藏民不吃魚。

 

PS:在藏區的宗教信仰,河葬和天葬都是神聖的:天葬是禿鷹來吃、河藏是魚來吃,在他們的觀念裡,也是一個大自然的生態循環。

 

  突然間,藏民問我們要不要體驗在草原上快馬奔馳的感覺,我們一口答應,他就拍打著馬,讓馬奔跑起來,馬群跑著跑著看到一條小溪,大部分的馬匹都跳躍過去了,其中一匹馬跑到小溪邊時,突然緊急停住,這時瞬間連人帶馬一起滑倒......碰的一聲,那時心想著:啊......下面都是泥巴和草,這下真的要吃土和草了。

其實人從馬背上掉到草地上的距離沒有很高,滑下馬的時候並不會痛,只覺得草原上濕濕的,擔心全身會有泥巴。只是身上臉上沾滿泥巴和草,沒有想像中的可怕,所有的隊友都笑了出來。

馬的主人提醒我們,掉下馬的第一時間雙手環抱頭部、身體側身蜷曲或跪抱,保持鎮定、不要大聲尖叫,如果在馬的面前大聲尖叫,馬也會受到驚慌。

 

【行程】

 

藏地之旅

雲南世界文化與自然遺產之旅

 

 

【The Little story 02】Riding horse experience: The moment which fell from a horse's back.


Once, we had a horseback experience strolling along the river in Tibetan areas. The Tibetan explained the ecology of this area and this river. (There are river burials in this river.) A river burial is holy in their belief. Fishes are deities so Tibetans do not eat them.


PS: River and sky burials are holy in Tibetans' religion; the sky burial is for vultures to eat and the river burial is for fish. It also is ecological cycles of nature in their cognition.


Then, the Tibetan asked if we wanted to try a gallop in the grassland. We said ok, and he spurred his horse on and came to a creek. Most of the horses leaped over the creek; however, one of these horses suddenly was braking. At this moment, I slipped with the horse and with a loud bang. I thought " It's all the mud and grass on the ground. And great! I'm really going to eat soil and grass."

In fact, it was not very high fell to the ground from the horseback. It was not painful when slid from the horseback. Only felt it was wet on the grassland and worried the body to cover some mud. Just filled with mud and grass on the body and face was not as terrible as imagined. All team members were laughing.

The horse's owner reminded us that covered the head with arms and hands by ourselves, curled up sideways, and embraced the knees when slid from the horseback at the first timing. Keep calm and do not scream loudly. Horses would be frightened if we screamed in front of horses.


【TOUR】


 [Tours in Tibetan areas


Cultural and natural world heritage sites tour in Yunnan.

 

 

 

 

   

 

【小故事03】騎馬體驗:掉馬後的恐懼

 

  有一個小女孩曾經有掉下馬的經驗,對騎馬產生陰影。為了克服她的陰影,她的媽媽還是希望她能嘗試再一次騎馬。

 

  小女孩有點被迫騎上馬匹,情緒上有點不安。為了安撫小女孩的情緒,牧場主人對著小女孩唱起了一首歌……「Let It Go~」,美妙歌聲讓原本害怕的小女孩,一聽到歌曲,馬上融入歌聲和故事的情節中,展開了微笑,覺得自己是騎著馬的公主,心情也慢慢變得不害怕了。

 

【The Little story 03】Riding horse experience: The fear after falling from a horse


Once a little girl had experienced falling off a horse; therefore, she was under the shadow of riding a horse. Her mother still hoped that the girl could try to ride a horse again to overcome her fear.


The girl was forced to ride a horse so she was uneasy. The rancher pacified the girl's mood by singing a song, "Let it go." The scared girl was hearing it while was gradually fitting into the plot and the song. She smiled and felt that she was a princess riding a horse. In addition, she gradually became not fear.

 

 

 

一開始害怕騎馬的小女孩(馬也跟著害怕)

 

The girl was afraid of riding a horse at the beginning. (The horse was afraid too.)

 

 

原來音樂是有魔力的

 

It turned out that the music was magical.

 

 

音樂讓小女孩變成公主、馬自己也覺得變帥了

 

The music makes the girl become a princess and the horse feel good-looking by itself.

 

 

彼此克服了心理障礙,完成騎馬體驗

 

They overcame the mental disorder with each other and completed the riding a horse experience.

 

 

【行程】

 

北之國8日

 

 

【小故事04】騎馬與騎驢體驗

 

  曾經有一個騎馬經驗很豐富的領隊說著這個故事,騎馬對他來講是稀鬆平常的事情。所以心態上覺得自己騎馬技術很厲害,結果一上馬,這匹馬就越跑越快,眼看著就要撞到柵欄,情急之下,馬匹故意甩尾想要把他摔到地面,他就用手跟腳緊扣著馬,後來馬匹狂奔一陣子才停了下來。當他跳下馬背的時候,發現自己已經嚇到腿軟,才明白一件事情:馬是聰明有靈性的,當騎馬的時候,心態上一定要彼此尊重。

 

PS:一般人以為騎馬就是要快馬奔馳,大力甩韁繩、側踢馬的腹部,然後喊著「come on!」,如果心態上不是彼此尊重,馬也是會故意捉弄人。

 

  有一個非常熱愛戶外活動的導遊,也說過騎驢的體驗。驢子外表看起來呆呆的,其實是很調皮的,在牠不開心的時候,會故意帶人去撞樹。在我們騎驢或馬的時候,心態上彼此都要互相尊重。

 

 

 

【TOUR】


8 Days tour in northern Japan

 

 

【The Little story 04】Riding horse and donkey experience.


Once a tour leader who had extensive experience in riding a horse said this story. Riding a horse was an ordinary event for him; hence, he thought his riding skill was good. As a result, as soon as the horse had been mounted, the horse run faster and faster. The horse almost hit the fence; however, the horse suddenly drifted on purpose to get rid of the leader to the ground. The leader firmly grasped the horse by his hands and legs. The horse had galloped without any control for a while before it stopped. The leader realized he was so scared that his legs felt like jelly when he dismounted from the horse. Finally, he understood that horses were smart and spiritual. They must respect each other in mind when riding a horse.


Most people consider riding a horse to gallop, hard lash with rein, spur a horse's belly, and shout "Come on". Horses deliberately play tricks on people if we do not respect each other.


A guide who loves outdoor activities shared his experience in riding a donkey. Actually, donkeys are very naughty although they look dorky. Donkeys will hit trees with carrying people on purpose when they feel blue. We should respect each other when we ride a horse or donkey.

 

 

 

【小常識01】

【Easy General knowledge 01】

 

站在馬的後面是禁止的,因為馬會馬後踢。

 

It is prohibited to stand behind a horse because horses kick.

 

 

【小常識02】普洱茶

 

  主要是發酵過的茶葉,泡出的茶呈清澈的棕紅色,也有人稱為「黑茶」,即是普洱茶。比較溫和,不會傷胃,適合在高海拔的山區飲用,藏人會用它來做「酥油茶」。藉由馬幫往來運輸在高山地區及藏地的物品。

 

  普洱茶的按照緊壓的形狀,分成:

 

(1)圓形「茶餅」(也稱七子餅)、(2)塊狀的「茶磚」、(3)瓜形「金瓜」、(4)碗形「沱茶」。

 

 

【Easy General knowledge 02】Pu'er tea


As the tea undergoes fermentation and is brewed red-brown color as called black tea (which is different from the English language black tea.) That's Pu'er tea which is mild and does not hurt a stomach. This tea is suitable for drinking in high-altitude mountainous areas; therefore, Tibetan use it to make butter tea. The goods are transported between the alpine and Tibet regions by horse caravans.


Pu'er is compressed into a variety of shapes,


(1)A round "cake" (also called "seven units cake tea"). (2)A thick rectangular block of tea. (3)the melon shape is called "Gold Melon".(4)The Bowl shape is called Tuocha.

 

 

 

   

 

【小常識03】馬幫與茶馬古道

 

【Easy General knowledge 03】Horse caravans and the Tea Horse Road.

 

 

 

  古代偏遠山區交通極不發達,所以物資運送需要靠馬匹來馱運。這些馬的體型較矮小,但非常有耐力,這樣的運輸,就變成了「馬幫」。

 

  這些馱運的物品,有的是圓筒狀(或者是籃子),以方便馱運。

 

  「馬幫」靠的是世代傳承、對山路熟悉、有豐富經驗的「趕馬人」,在山區往來,他們的工作風險極高,馱運的路途遙遠,需要橫跨多個省份或國家,所以運輸時間很長,一趟可能是好幾個月或一兩年的時間。除了要應付山區險峻的環境,還要避開可能遇到潛伏的盜賊掠奪。

 

每一趟的旅程,都是責任的交付與賭上生命的冒險,這是一場生存之旅。

 

 

  「茶馬古道」與「絲綢之路」同樣是中國古代運輸路線,並非單一條商道,形成時間約在西漢(約西元前200年)至唐朝(約西元600年~900年)時期。

 

  在西漢,先有「古道」,作為運輸的道路,可在《漢書》看到描述,雖然記錄很少,但「古道」已經很發達,由於這些地方地勢險峻,靠馬馱運比靠馬車馱運方便;到了唐朝,茶傳入藏地,藏人們因為對茶的需求,讓這條「古道」變成了「茶馬古道」。

 

  「馬幫」的組織必須嚴謹,因為長途的遠征。「馬幫」專業化以後,也形成了專業的術語和規則,還有分成「官幫」與「民幫」。「馬幫」最高的首領稱為「馬鍋頭」,其他還有「二鍋頭」(首領的副手)、「管事」(掌管物資與財務開支)、「趕馬人」(馬夫)等。

 

  在滇緬公路、中國西南部、藏地山區,「馬幫」運輸路線形成這條古道,就是「茶馬古道」,連結了藏地(包括雲南與中甸)、緬甸與老撾(現在的寮國)。

 

 

update:2018/4/18

 

 

緬甸8日

藏地之旅

 

 

Transporting in remote mountain areas was a very inconvenience, and thus all goods must rely on horses for delivery in ancient times. These horses were relatively short but endurance. This kind of transportation became horse caravans.


Some of these goods of transportation are cylinders (or baskets) for easy carrying.


Horse caravans depend on passed down the generations, familiar on the paths of mountains, experienced horses driver. Their work is high risk due to transportation between the mountains. The carrying paths must through many provinces or countries are a long way. Therefore, the transport time is very long that might take several months or one to two years for one trip. Therefore, the transport time is very long that might take several months or one to two years for one trip. Avoiding the robbers' ambush who might attack apart from dealing with the dangerous environment in the mountains.

 

Every journey was the delivery of responsibility and the risk of bet the life. It is a survival journey.

 

The Tea Horse Road and the Silk Road are not only trade routes but also the routes of ancient transportation. This route approximately appeared between the Western Han Dynasty (about BC 200) and Tang Dynasty (about AC 600~900).


In the beginning, there was a trail as a road for transportation in the Western Han Dynasty. It is a description in the Book of Han but not much; however, this old trail was very developed. Transported by horses was more convenient than by carriages due to these steep areas. The tea spread across Tibet until the Tang Dynasty. Tea is in demand by Tibetans that make this old trail turn into The Tea Horse Road.


The organization of Horse caravans required rigorous because of the long-distance expedition. It also had professional jargon and rules after Horse caravans’ specialization. Horse caravans are divided into government factions and citizen factions. The chief of a Horse caravan is called the "Ma Guo Tuo", and others are "Er Guo Tou" (Deputy of the chief), "Manager" (who manages the goods and finances), horse drivers, etc. 


This transportation route by Horse caravans became this old trail between the Burma Road, southwestern China, Tibetan mountains that are the Tea Horse Road. It connects Tibetan areas (including Yunnan and Zhongdian), Myanmar, and Laos.


update:2018/4/18


 [8 Days tour in Myanmar.


 [Tours in Tibetan areas.

 

 

 

 

   

 

【小常識04】古代的馬&現代的馬

 

【Easy General knowledge 04】Ancient & Contemporary Horses

 

 

  古代有三種馬:

 

(1)蒙古馬:脖子較粗、四肢較短壯。是最早的純種馬,約5000年前,產自蒙古高原。

(2)阿拉伯馬:身形比較高挑,約4500年前,產自阿拉伯半島。

(3)汗血馬:約在2000多年前(西漢時期)的大宛國,大約位於現在中亞的土庫曼尼斯坦,那時的人類在春天時,把畜養品種較好的母馬放在山腳下,讓牠自然與野馬混種所生下的混血馬:傳說可日行千里,會出血汗。

 

 

  有一次五月我們來到雲南中甸藏區的草原上,看到整個草原的母馬都是懷孕大著肚子,原來春天是馬匹懷孕的季節。

 

 

  現在的馬分為三種:

 

(1)熱血馬:跑得快、很難駕馭、個性剛烈。一般用來比賽。

(2)冷血馬:體型稍大,動作較慢,用來運輸。

(3)溫血馬:熱血馬與冷血馬的混血兒,個性溫和,容易駕馭,用來騎乘。

 

【行程】

 

西伯利亞與蒙古國17-60日

西伯利亞自然生態深度之旅N日

 

 

There were three kinds of horses in ancient times.


(1)Mongol horses are with relatively short but strong legs and thick necks. It is the earliest thoroughbred horse and from Mongolia about 5000 years ago.
(2)Arabian horses are taller and originated on the Arabian Peninsula 4,500 years ago.
(3)The Ferghana horses were originated in the Dayuan country where had located in Turkmenistan of Central Asia now about 2000 years ago. Humans at that time grazed better-breed mares on foot of the mountain in the spring. Those mares would naturally crossbreed with wild horses to birth hybrid horses. According to legends, these horses could travel a thousand miles a day and sweat blood, giving rise to the name: "sweats blood horse".


Once we went to grassland in the Tibetan areas of Yunnan in May and saw many pregnant mares. It turns out that spring is the season for horses to become pregnant.


There are three kinds of horses nowadays.


(1)Hot-blooded horses run fast, are hard to control, and have a fiery temper. Generally, they are used for competitions.
(2)Cold-blooded horses are tall, slow-moving, and suitable for transportation.
(3)Warm-blooded horses are produced by crossing hot-blooded and cold-blooded breeds. They are gentle, easy to control, and used for riding.


【TOUR】

 [17~60 Days tour in Siberia and Mongolia

 [Depth nature eco-tour in Siberia

 

 

 

【小故事05】騎馬體驗:老人家騎馬初體驗

 

  有一次在日本旅行中,發生一個小故事。我們帶著一個八十幾歲的爺爺與他的一家人,到了牧場,大家很開心地要騎馬,老爺爺覺得自己年紀大了,不想參與任何活動,在大家的鼓吹之下,連走帶推,把老爺爺推上馬背,他戴上兒子幫他買的帥氣帽子,輕鬆的帶著他走了一圈。老爺爺在騎馬的過程中,突然開心地大笑,他說回想到自己當初年輕時英勇帥氣的模樣。

 

 

【The Little story 05】Riding horse experience: An elder had the first experience of horse riding.


This little story happened on one of the tours in Japan. We took an eighties-older man and his family to a ranch. Everyone was happily going to ride a horse; however, the older man thought he was too old to participate in any activities. The grandpa was given a push upon the horse by everyone's persuasion. He wore a nice hat, which was given by his son as a present, and relaxed riding a circle. He was laughing happily when he rode the horse because he recalled how brave and handsome he was during his young age.

 

 

   

 

  另外有一個老奶奶,行動緩慢,一開始也是堅持不騎馬,大家連哄帶騙,把老奶奶托上馬背,還挨了老奶奶一頓罵,她一臉氣呼呼坐上馬背。簡單的體驗騎馬繞園區一圈之後,老奶奶突然也展開了笑容,她說這輩子從來沒想過自己可以騎馬,尤其已經這麼老了,還能夠騎馬體驗。

 

  馬場的主人說,其實當馬在慢走時,騎馬接近正常人走路的方式,只要有人專業馬場人員帶著讓馬慢步走一圈,其實老人小孩都可以體驗騎馬的樂趣。

 

  傳說古代希臘曾經把受傷的人放在馬背上,振奮精神,利用騎馬來幫助士兵作為復健,現代也有所謂的馬術治療。

 

【行程】

 

希臘神話之旅

 

 

 

【小常識05】賽馬

 

 

  賽馬是刺激性的競賽,衍生出輸贏的行為。這樣的馬匹在競技場上,腳要非常地細,可以加速衝刺,因此常常受傷折斷了腿。無法奔馳的馬匹,受不了疼痛,加上已經沒有任何的利益,最後直接被處決。人們一時輸贏上的刺激,對牠們而言,是一種傷害。

 

 

There was another older lady who moved slowly. She had insisted not to ride a horse at the beginning, but she was coaxed and gotten on the horse by everyone. She scolded everyone when she was getting on horseback. She said that she never thought she could ride a horse in all her life, especially she could have such an experience at her age.


The ranch's owner said the speed at which horses slowly move is nearly human walking. As a matter of fact, elders and children can experience the fun of horse riding when there is professional staff on horse farms leading a horse to walk a circle.


The ancient Greeks had put the injured people on horseback to help soldiers' recovery by horse-riding in the legend. Nowadays, there is also equine-assisted therapy.


【Tour】


 [Greek Mythology Tour

 


【Easy General knowledge 05】Horse racing


Horse racing is an exciting race and later developed into a win and lose. Horses which in the racecourse have to with very thin legs in order to speed up running. Hence, their legs are often injured and broken. Horses that can't gallop hard to stand the pain and without any value; thus, they were executed by the end. For humans, it was an excitement of winning and losing. For horses, it was a kind of harm.

 

 

 

【to be continue … 待續】

 

 

 

2018/03/01

 

 


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